The pivot-shift examination may be a better measure of "functional instability" than instrumented knee laxity or Lachman examination following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Kocher et al in a study looking at 202 post ACL-reconstruction patients found that the pivot shift test was the only test significantly associated with patient satisfaction, knee giving away, difficulty cutting and twisting, activity limitation, sports participation, Lysholm score, and overall knee function. KT-1000 is an instrument to measure the anterior translation of the tibia.
Video V demonstrates the pivot shift test.
Kocher MS, Steadman JR, Briggs KK, Sterett WI, Hawkins RJ. Relationships between objective assessment of ligament stability and subjective assessment of symptoms and function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Apr-May;32(3):629-34.
PMID: 15090377 (Link to Abstract)